Identity Management

Identity Providing Service

Every synchronization domain requires a shared and synchronized knowledge of identities and their associated keys among all participants and domain entities as the synchronisation protocol is built with the principle that provided the same data, all validators must come verifiably to the same result.

The service that establishes this shared understanding in a domain is the Identity Providing Service (IPS). From a synchronisation protocol perspective, the IPS is an abstract component and the synchronisation protocol only ever interacts with the read API of the IPS. There is no assumption on how the IPS is implemented, only the data it provides is relevant from a synchronisation perspective.

The participant nodes, the sequencer and the mediator have a local component called the Identity Providing Service Client (IPS client). This component establishes the connection to the IPS of the domain to read and validate the identity information in the domain.

The IPS client exposes a read API providing aggregated access to the domain topology information and public keys provided by the IPS of one or more domains.

The identity providing service receives keys and certificates through some process and evaluates the justifications, before presenting the information to the IPS clients of the participant or domain entities. The IPS clients verify the information. The local consumers of the IPS client read API trust the provided information without verifying the justifications, leading to a separation of synchronisation and identity management.

Requirements

The identity providing service describes the interface between the identity management process and the synchronisation functionality. It satisfies the high-level platform requirements on identity provider integration and identity information updates. The following requirements are written from the perspective of the IPS client, i.e., the synchronisation layer components.

  • Mapping of Parties to Participants. I can query the state at a certain time and subscribe to a stream of updates associating a known identifier of a party to a set of participants as well as the local participant to a set of hosted parties. Mapping to a set of participants satisfies the high-level requirement on parties using multiple participants.

  • Participant Qualification. I can query the state at a certain time and subscribe to a stream of updates informing me about the trust level of a participant indicating either untrusted (trust level of 0) or trusted (trust level of 1).

  • Participant Relationship Qualification. A party to participant relationship is qualified, restricted to submission (including confirmation), confirmation, observation (read-only). This also satisfies the high-level requirement on read-only participants.

  • Domain aware mapping of Participants to Keys. I can query the state at a certain time and subscribe to a stream of updates mapping participants to a set of keys per synchronization domain.

  • Domain Entity Keys. I can query the current state and subscribe to a stream of updates on the keys of the domain entities.

  • Lifetime and Purpose of Keys. I can learn for any key that I receive for what it can be used, what cryptographic protocol it refers to and when it expires.

  • Signature Checking. Given a blob, a key I obtained from the IPS and a signature, I can verify that the signature is a valid signature for the given blob, signed with the respective key at a certain time.

  • Immutability. The history of all keys is preserved within the same time boundaries as my audit logs such that I can always audit my participant or domain entity logs.

  • Evidence. For any data which I receive from the IPS I can get the set of associated evidence such that I can prove my arguments in a legal dispute. The associated evidence contains a descriptor which I can use to read up in the documentation on the definition of the otherwise opaque blob.

  • Race Condition Free. I can be sure that I am always certain about the validity of a key with respect to a transaction such that there can not be a disagreement on the validity of a transaction due to an in-flight key change.

  • Querying for Parties. I can query, using an opaque query statement, the IPS for a party and will receive results based on a privacy policy not known to me.

  • Party metadata. I can access metadata associated with a party for display purposes.

  • Equivalent Trust Assumptions A federation protocol of the reference identity management service needs to be based on equivalent trust assumptions as the interoperability protocol such that there is no mismatch between the capabilities of the two.

Associated requirements that extend beyond the scope of the IPS:

  • API Versioning. I can use a versioned API which supports further extensions, see our general principles of upgradability and Software Versioning.

  • GDPR compliance. The identity providing service needs to comply with regulatory requirements such as the GRPR right to be forgotten.

  • Composability. The identity providing service needs to be composable such that I can add my own identity providing service based on the documentation and released binary artefacts.

Identity Management Design

While the previous section introduced the IPS as an abstract concept, we describe here the concrete implementation of our globally composable identity management system. The design is introduced by first calling out a few basic design principles. We then introduce a formalism for the necessary identity management transactions. Finally, we connect the formalism to actual processes and cryptographic artefacts that describe the concrete implementation.

Design Principles

In order to understand the approach, a few key principles need to be introduced.

The synchronisation protocol is separated from the identity protocol. However, in order to leverage the composability properties of the synchronisation protocol, an equivalent approach is required for identities. As such, given that there is no single globally trusted entity we can rely on for synchronisation, we also can’t rely on a single globally trusted entity to establish identities, which leads us to the first principle:

Principle 1: For global synchronization to work in reality, there can not be a single trust anchor.

A cryptographic key pair can uniquely be identified through the fingerprint of the public key. By owning the associated private key, an entity can always prove unambigously through a signature that the entity is the owner of the public key. We are using this principle heavily in our system to verify and authorize the activities of the participants. As such, we can introduce the second principle:

Principle 2: A participant is someone who can authorize and whose authorizations can be verified (someone with a known key)

In short, a participant is someone with a key or with a set of keys that are known to belong together. However, the above definition doesn’t mean that we necessarily know who owns the key. Ownership is an abstract aspect of the real world and is not relevant for the synchronisation itself. Real world ownership is only relevant for the interpretation of the meaning of some shared data, but not of the data processing itself.

Therefore, we introduce the third principle:

Principle 3: We separate certification of system identities and legal identities (or separation of cryptographical identity and metadata)

Using keys, we can build trust chains by having a key sign a certificate certifying some ownership or some fact to be associated with another key. However, at the root of such chains is always the root key. The root key itself is not certified and the legal ownership can not be verified: we just need to believe it. As an example, if we look at our local certificate store on our device, then we just believe that a certain root is owned by a named certificate authority. And our believe is rooted in the trust into our operating system provider that they have included only legitimate keys.

As such, any link between legal identities to cryptographic keys through certificates is based on a believe that the entity controlling the root key is honest and ensured that everybody attached to the trust-root has been appropriately vetted. Therefore, we can only believe that legal identities are properly associated, but verifying it in the absolute sense is very difficult, especially impossible online.

Another relevant aspect is that identity requirements are asymmetrical properties. While large corporations want to be known by their name (BANK), individuals tend to be more closed and would rather like that their identity is only revealed if really necessary (GDPR, HIPAA, confidential information, bank secrecy). Also, by looking at a bearer bond for example, the owner has a much higher interest in the identity of the obligor than the obligor has in the owner. If the obligor turns out to be bad or fraud, the owner might loose all their money. In contrast, the obligor doesn’t really care to whom they are paying back the bond, except for some regulatory reasons. Therefore, we conclude the fourth principle

Principle 4: Identities on the ledger are an asymmetric problem, where privacy and publicity needs to be carefully weighted on a case by case basis.

Formalism for a Global Composeable Identity System

Definitions

In order to construct a global composable identity system, we will introduce an identity scheme leading to globally unique identifiers. This allows us to avoid federation which would require cooperation between identity providers or consensus among all participants and would be difficult to integrate with the synchronisation protocol.

We will use \((p_{k}^{x},s_{k}^{x})\) to refer to a public/private key pair of some cryptographic scheme, where the super-script \(x\) will provide the context of the usage of the key and the sub-script \(k\) will be used to distinguish keys.

In the following, we will use the fingerprint of a public key \(I_{k} = \textrm{fingerprint}(p_{k})\) in order to refer to a key-pair \((p_{k},s_{k})\).

Based on this, we will use \(I_{k}\), resp. \((p_{k},s_{k})\), as an identity root key pair in the following. There can be multiple thereof and we do not make any statement on who the owner of such a key is.

Now, we introduce a globally unique identifier as a tuple \((X, I_{k})\) , where \(I_{k}\) refers to the previously introduced fingerprint of an identity root key and \(X\) is in principle some abstract identifier such that we can verify equality. As such, \((X,I_{k}) = (Y,I_{l})\) if \(X = Y\) and \(I_{k} = I_{l}\). The identifier is globally unique by definition: there can not be a collision as we defined two identifiers to be equal by definition if they collide. As such, the identity key \(I_{k}\) spans a namespace and guarantees that the namespace is, by definition, collision free.

The unique identifier within the project is defined as

/** A namespace spanned by the fingerprint of a pub-key
  *
  * This is based on the assumption that the fingerprint is unique to the public-key */
final case class Namespace(fingerprint: Fingerprint) extends PrettyPrinting {
  def unwrap: String                     = fingerprint.unwrap
  def toProtoPrimitive: String           = fingerprint.toProtoPrimitive
  override def pretty: Pretty[Namespace] = prettyOfParam(_.fingerprint)
}

/** a unique identifier within a namespace
  * Based on the Ledger API PartyIds/LedgerStrings being limited to 255 characters, we allocate
  * - 64 + 4 characters to the namespace/fingerprint (essentially SHA256 with extra bytes),
  * - 2 characters as delimiters, and
  * - the last 185 characters for the Identifier. */
final case class UniqueIdentifier(id: Identifier, namespace: Namespace) extends PrettyPrinting {

We will use the global unique identifier to identify participant nodes \(N = (N, I_{k})\), parties \(P = (P,I_{k})\) and domain entities \(D = (D,I_{k})\) (which means that \(X\) is short for \((X,I_{k})\)). For parties \(P\) and participant nodes \(N\), we should use a sufficiently long random number for privacy reasons. For domains \(D\), we use readable names.

Incremental Changes

The topology state is build from incremental changes, so called identity transactions \(\{+/-; \omega\}^{[s_{k}]}_{t}\) where \(+\) is the addition and \(-\) the subsequent removal. The incremental changes are not commutative and are ordered by time. For a given operand \(\omega\) we note that the only accepted sequences are \(+\) or \(+-\), but that \(-+\) or \(--\) or \(++\) are not accepted. The \(t\) denotes the time when the change was effected, i.e. when it was sequenced by the identity providing service.

The \(\{.\}^{[s_{k}]}\) denotes the list of keys that authorized the change by signing the topology transaction. The authorization rules (which keys \([s_{k}]\) need to sign an topology transaction \(\{.\}\)) depend on the command \(\omega\). Most but not all transactions require the signatures to be nested in some form. Generally, we note that anything that is distributed by the identity providing service needs to be signed with its key \(s_{D}\) and therefore \(\forall \{.\}^{[s_k]}: s_{D} = \,\textrm{tail}\,[s_{k}]\).

For the sake of brevity, we will omit the identity providing service signature using \(s_{D}\) in the following and assume that it is always added upon distribution together with the timestamp \(t\).

Identity Transactions

We can distinguish three types of topology transactions: identity delegations, mapping updates and domain governance updates. In the following, we will establish what these transactions mean and what they do and what the authorization rules are.

Delegation

The general delegation transaction is represented as

\[\{+/-; (?,I_{k}) \Rightarrow p_{l}\}^{s_{k}}\]

where the \(?\) is a place-holder for a specific permissioning level. The delegation transaction indicates that a certain set of operations on the namespace spanned by the root key pair \(I_{k}\) is delegated to the public key \(p_{l}\). The delegation is not exclusive, which means that there can be multiple keys that have to right to sign a specific transaction on the specific namespace.

There are two types of delegations:

  • namespace delegations: \(\{+/-; (*;I_{k}) \Rightarrow p_{l}\}^{[\tilde{s}_{k}]}\) which delegates to \(p_{l}\) the right to do all topology transactions on that particular namespace. The signature of such a delegated key is then considered to be equivalent to the signature of the root key: \(s_{l} \simeq s_{k}\). If such a namespace delegation is a root delegation, then the delegated key is as powerful as the root key. If the root delegation flag is set to false, then the key can do everything on that namespace, except of issuing \(NamespaceDelegation\). Therefore, such a delegation with the root delegation flag set to false effectively represents an intermediate CA, whereas with true, it’s an equivalent root key. This operation is particularly useful to support offline storage of root keys, but as we will see later, it is also used to roll keys.

final case class NamespaceDelegation(namespace: Namespace, target: SigningPublicKey, isRootDelegation: Boolean)
    extends TopologyMapping
    with HasProtoV0[v0.NamespaceDelegation] {
  • identifier delegations: \(\{+/-; (X;I_{k}) \Rightarrow p_{l}\}^{[\tilde{s}_k]}\) which delegates the right to assign mappings to a particular identifier \((X,I_k)\). With this right, the key holder can assign a party to a participant or run the party as a participant by assigning a key to it. This effectively represents a certificate.

final case class IdentifierDelegation(identifier: UniqueIdentifier, target: SigningPublicKey)
    extends TopologyMapping
    with HasProtoV0[v0.IdentifierDelegation] {

From an authorization rule perspective, these delegations can delegate permissions to other keys and can be used to verify whether a certain key is allowed to sign an topology transaction. Therefore, we use for now the notation \(\tilde{s}_{k}^{I}\) to indicate that some operation requires a signature of the root key \(s_{k}^{I}\) or by a key which was directly or indirectly authorised by the root key.

Mapping Updates

The generic second type of topology transactions are mapping updates which are represented as

\[\{+/-, (X, I_{k}) \rightarrow (Y, I_{l}, ct)\}^{[\tilde{s}_k,\tilde{s}_l]}\]

The above transaction maps one item of one namespace to something of a second namespace. For some mapping updates, the second namespace is always equal to the first namespace and we only require a single signature. The \(ct\) provides context to the mapping update and might include usage restrictions, depending on the type of mapping.

For transactions that require two signatures we support the composition of the add operation through

\[\{+, (X, I_{k}) \rightarrow (Y, I_{l}, ct)\}^{[\tilde{s}_k,\tilde{s}_l]} = \{+, (X, I_{k}) \rightarrow (Y, I_{l}, ct)\}^{[\tilde{s}_k]} + \{+, (X, I_{k}) \rightarrow (Y, I_{l}, ct)\}^{[\tilde{s}_l]}\]

and the removal operation through

\[\{-, (X, I_{k}) \rightarrow (Y, I_{l}, ct)\}^{[\tilde{s}_k,\tilde{s}_l]} = \{-, (X, I_{k}) \rightarrow (Y, I_{l}, ct)\}^{[\tilde{s}_k]} || \{-, (X, I_{k}) \rightarrow (Y, I_{l}, ct)\}^{[\tilde{s}_l]}\]

There are four different sub-types of valid mapping transactions:

  • Domain Keys: The mapping transaction of \(\{+, D \rightarrow (p_{D}, \textrm{ct})\}^{s_{D}}\) updates the keys for the domain entities. Valid qualifiers for \(ct\) are identity, sequencer, mediator. As every state update needs to be signed by the domain, the domain definition corresponds to the initial seed of the identity transaction stream \(\{D \rightarrow (p_{D}, \textrm{identity})\}^{s_{D}}\). If a participant knows the domain id of \(D\), it can verify that this initial seed is correctly authorized by the owner of the key governing the unique identifier of the domain id.

  • Owner to Key Mappings: The mapping transaction \(\{+, (N,I_k) \rightarrow (p_{l}, \textrm{ct})\}^{[\tilde{s}_{k}]}\) updates the keys that are associated with an owner such as a participant or a domain entity. The key purposes can be signing and/or encryption. If more than one key is defined, all systems are supposed to use the key that was observed first and is still active.

final case class OwnerToKeyMapping(owner: KeyOwner, key: PublicKey)
    extends TopologyMapping
    with HasProtoV0[v0.OwnerToKeyMapping] {
  • Party to Participant Mappings: The mapping transaction \(\{+, (P,I_{k}) \rightarrow (N,I_{l},\textrm{ct})\}^{[\tilde{s}_k,\tilde{s}_l]}\) maps a party to a participant. The context ct would call out the permissions such as submission, confirmation or observation.

final case class PartyToParticipant(side: RequestSide,
                                    party: PartyId,
                                    participant: ParticipantId,
                                    permission: ParticipantPermission)
    extends TopologyMapping
    with HasProtoV0[v0.PartyToParticipant] {
Participant State Updates

The fourth type of topology transactions are participant state updates as domain governance transactions \(\{d|a|c|p, N\}^{s_{D}}\). Here, \(d\) means disabled (participant can not be involved in any transaction, \(a\) means participant is active, \(c\) means participant can not submit transactions but only confirm, \(p\) means participant is purged and will never be back again. Participant states are owned by the operator of the committer. It is at the committers discretion to decide whether a participant is allowed to use the domain or not.

final case class ParticipantState(side: RequestSide,
                                  domain: DomainId,
                                  participant: ParticipantId,
                                  permission: ParticipantPermission,
                                  trustLevel: TrustLevel)
    extends TopologyMapping
    with HasProtoV0[v0.ParticipantState] {

  require(permission.canConfirm || trustLevel == TrustLevel.Ordinary,
          "participant trust level must either be ordinary or permission must be confirming")

Some Considerations

Removal Authorizations

We note that the authorization rules for the addition are more strict than for the removal: Any removal can be authorized by the domain key \(s_{D}\) such that the domain operator can prune the topology state if necessary, which is fine, as the accessibility of a domain is anyway dependent on the cooperation of the domain operator.

Therefore, when talking about removal authorization, we explain the authorization check the IPS will make if it receives a removal request from an untrusted source. Consequently, all participants will at least be aware whether a certain topology transaction removal was authorized by the domain identity manager or by the actual authority of that topology transaction.

Revocations

One important point to note is that all topology transactions have a local effect. This means that a removal of a root key \(\{-, p_{k}\}\) will not invalidate all transactions that have been signed before by the key directly or indirectly. Therefore, to revoke a key as in “invalidating everything the key has signed” requires publishing a set of topology transactions together.

Domain Identity State

Looking at the given formalism, we can distinguish between the topology state and the domain topology state. The difference between these two is that the topology state is comprised of all delegation and mapping transactions. The domain topology state extends this definition by adding domain governance updates such as participant states. And the domain topology state overrides the authorization rule by allowing a domain to remove any previous topology transaction.

Bootstrapping

Based on the above explanations, we observe that the authorized domain topology state is given by all signed and properly authorized topology transaction which additionally have been ordered and signed by the domain topology manager and distributed (and signed) by the sequencer. Consequently, for a new participant connecting to a domain, in order to validate the topology state and know that they are talking to the right sequencer, it only needs to know the unique-identifier of the domain. Using this unique identifier, it can verify the authenticity and correctness of the topology state, as it can verify the correct authorization of the corresponding topology transactions.

This is the bootstrapping problem of any Canton network: In order to connect to a domain, a participant needs to know the domain id (a unique identifier) of a domain, which it needs to receive through a trusted channel.

Default Party

Given that \((N,I_{k})\) and \((P,I_{k})\) are both unique identifiers which we use to refer to participants and parties, we can introduce for every participant its default party. This provides a more straight forward meaning of a party as being a virtualisation concept on top of the synchronisation structure.

Therefore, any party in the system can either self-host on a participant, or delegate the hosting to another participant. Or do a mixture of both.

Submission vs Confirmation

Due to sub-transaction privacy, validating participants only learn the identity of the submitter if they are stakeholders of the root transaction node. Therefore, the distinction between submission and confirmation permissions in the party to participant mappings are only respected by the default implementation. A malicious submitter with confirmation permissions can submit transactions in the name of the party. Such a behaviour will be detected by any other participant hosting the party, but these participants cannot prevent the transaction from being accepted.

Identity State Accumulation

Now, we define the topology state \(S_{t}\) at time \(t\) as provided by the identity service provider of a domain incrementally as

\[\begin{split}\begin{eqnarray} S_{t} & = & S_{t-1} + \{., \omega\}_{t}^{s_{k},s_{k'}} \\ & = & \bigoplus_{t' < t} \{., \omega\}_{t'}^{[s_{.}]}\\ & = & [(.,I) \Rightarrow p] + [((X,I) \rightarrow Y)] + [(.,N)] \end{eqnarray}\end{split}\]

Here, the first expression on the last line represents the delegations, the second corresponds to the mapping updates and the third one to the participant state updates.

We assume that the identity providing service (which is part of the committer) is presented by someone with an topology transaction \(\{.\}^{s_k}\). Upon a vetting operation where the operator can decide if the proposed change is acceptable, the IPS sequences, validates, signs (using the domain key \(s_{D}\)) and distributes the topology state changes to all affected domain entities.

Replay Attacks

The topology transactions published on a domain \(D\) are not pinned to the particular domain. Restricting topology transactions to specific domains would prevent a replay, but would also create an administrative burden. A malicious domain might pretend a presence of a participant on a domain. However, impersonating that participant or domain entity is impossible without the secret private key which means that a replay of topology transactions has no impact on integrity or privacy.

Privacy by Design

A tricky question is how to provide privacy by design, allowing participants only to learn about other parties and participants on a need to know basis, while still ensuring that enough information is available for the participant to progress and ensuring that the information remains immutable and verifiable.

We do this by generally restricting what is shared with participants by default. Instead of broadcasting the mappings \(X \rightarrow Y\) to all participants, we broadcast \(T = (H(X),t_id)\) instead.

We include a service with the committer that allows to query the data once the left hand side has been learnt. This means that once \(X\) of \(H(X)\) is known, a participant can call a service that returns the corresponding identity transactions, which in turn can be verified to be justified.

Looking at the participant to key mappings \(N \rightarrow K\) we note that by only broadcasting \(H(N)\) instead of \(N\), other participants can not transact with a participant P unless they have learned P’s identity. This is a similar property as we see with phone numbers. Guessing a phone number is hard. However, once we receive a call from a phone, we know the calling number.

By restricting the data we broadcast about the party to participant mappings, we prevent two aspects. First, nobody can contact a party unless they have learned the party identifier before. This is important as otherwise, any participant on the ledger might e.g. contact all parties of another participating bank. Second, we also protect that somebody can know how many parties e.g. a participant manages. This prevents learning questions such as how many parties are represented by a certain participant (how many clients does my competitor have).

Cross-Domain Delegations

In our design of participants and parties, we observe that a participant is a system entity whereas a party is meant to represent some actor in the real world. In order to commoditise the ledger as a service, we need to provide a way that makes a party something fluid that can be moved around from participant. As the participant should just be a service, it might be acceptable to keep it pinned to an identity domain. But a party should be able to travel but still be hold accountable for the obligations.

Permissioning a party on a second participant node that exists in the same domain is already possible in the present formalism: \(\{(P,I_{k}) \rightarrow (N_{2}, I_{k})\}^{s_{k}}\)

A straight-forward extension to permission a party on a second participant in another identity namespace is: \(\{(P,I_{k}) \rightarrow (N_{2}, I_{l})\}^{s_{k}, s_{l}}\) Based on the additivity of such statements, we can also build such a permission from two individually signed transactions.

The party delegation transaction supports delegating the permissioning of a party to a key outside of the root key namespace: \(\{(P,I_{k}) \Rightarrow p_{l}\}^{s_{k}}\)

Multi-Domain Transaction

The key challenge of the identity management aspect is to design it such that we can support multi-domain synchronisation without requiring the committers cooperate.

First, we note that we avoid collision problems by using globally unique identifiers derived from namespaces generated by root keys by design.

Second, we note that we do not need to have complete consistency of identities between the committers. All that is required is a sufficient overlap.

We first introduce a new mapping transaction denoted the transfer permission as \(\{P \rightarrow D_{T}\}\) on the source domain \(D_{S}\). The transfer permission means that for the given party, out-transfers of contracts to the target domain \(D_{T}\) are allowed. However, this does not imply that the target domain has a corresponding permission to move the contract back. It might, but there is no guarantee.

Right now, in the transfer-out protocol, the transfer-out request check reads The target domain is acceptable to all stakeholders. By introducing \(\{P \rightarrow D\}\) we are now explicit about what an acceptable domain is: for all stakeholder parties of the particular contract, there is an approriate transfer permission on the current domain.

However, there are edge cases we need to deal with: what happens if on domain \(D_{T}\), the party \(P\) doesn’t exist? Or what happens if the participants representing \(P\) on \(D_{S}\) are completely different than on \(D_{T}\)? This can happen either due to a misconfiguration or due to a race-condition of an inflight change.

Clearly, in such a case, the transfer must fail in a predicatable manner. Therefore, we introduce two new rules

1) transfer-our on \(D_{S}\) will be rejected if \((P \rightarrow [N])_{D_{S}}^{t_{1}} \cap (P \rightarrow [N])_{D_{T}}^{t_{0}} = \emptyset\)

2) transfer-in on \(D_{T}\) will be rejected if \((P \rightarrow [N])_{D_{S}}^{t_{1}} \cap (P \rightarrow [N])_{D_{T}}^{t_{2}} = \emptyset\)

These rules boil down to the simple verbal requirement that at least one participant representing the affected party needs to be present on both domains while the transfer takes place from \(t_{0}\) to \(t_{2}\).

Validation

Scenario: How to roll participant keys?

This corresponds to \(\{+, (N,I_k) \rightarrow p_{2}\}^{\tilde{s}_{k}} \{-, (N,I_k) \rightarrow p_{1}\}^{\tilde{s}_{k}}\)

Scenario: I can setup my local committer and my local participant and subsequently connect to a remote committer.

Either locally create an identity key and get it vetted by the committer. Or get \(IdentifierDelegations\) by another identity key holder, load it locally into the identity store, subsequently pushing to a remote committer.

Scenario: I can register a party on multiple participants?

\(\{+, P \rightarrow N_{1}\}\{+, \rightarrow N_{2}\}\)

Scenario: I can introduce a new cryptographic signing scheme without loosing my identities or I can roll a root identity key.

Assuming that \(\{I_{k}^{S}\}\) is the original key of scheme \(S\) and we want to use scheme \(S'\), then the following transaction should suffice: \(\{J_{k}^{S'}\}^{I_{k}^{S}}\). Now the new key is endorsed to act on the namespace originally spanned by \(I_{k}\). If furthermore \(I_{k}\) is revoked, then the new key becomes the root key. If the signature of the old key is not trusted then the delegation needs to be “believed”.

There is a corresponding RFC for X509s for that https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6489

Scenario: I can migrate a party from one participant to another.

\[\{+, (P,I_{k}) \rightarrow (N_{2}, I_{l}) \}^{I_{k},I_{l}} \{-, P \rightarrow (N_{2},I_{k}) \}^{I_{k}}\]

Implementation

Domain Id

We assume that the domain id is shared with the connecting participant through a trusted channel. This can be implemented as a secure out of band process or by trusting TLS server authentication when initially requesting the domain id from the Sequencer Service.

Identity Providing Service API

The Identity Providing Service client API is defined as follows:

/**
  * Client side API for the Identity Providing Service. This API is used to get information about the layout of
  * the domains, such as party-participant relationships, used encryption and signing keys,
  * package information, participant states and so on.
  */
class IdentityProvidingServiceClient {

  private val domains = TrieMap.empty[DomainId, DomainTopologyClient]
  def add(domainClient: DomainTopologyClient): IdentityProvidingServiceClient = {
    domains += (domainClient.domainId -> domainClient)
    this
  }

  def allDomains: Iterable[DomainTopologyClient] = domains.values

  def tryForDomain(domain: DomainId): DomainTopologyClient =
    domains.getOrElse(domain, sys.error("unknown domain " + domain.toString))

  def forDomain(domain: DomainId): Option[DomainTopologyClient] = domains.get(domain)

}

trait TopologyClientApi[T] {

  /** The domain this client applies to */
  def domainId: DomainId

  /** The most recently observed topology state */
  def recentSnapshot(implicit traceContext: TraceContext): T

  /** The timestamp of the most recently observed topology state */
  def recentTimestamp: CantonTimestamp

  /** Returns true if the topology information at the passed timestamp is already  known */
  def snapshotAvailable(timestamp: CantonTimestamp): Boolean

  /** Returns the topology information at a certain point in time
    *
    * Use this method if you are sure to be synchronised with the topology state updates.
    * The method will block & wait for an update, but emit a warning if it is not available
    */
  def snapshot(timestamp: CantonTimestamp)(implicit traceContext: TraceContext): Future[T]

  /** Waits until a snapshot is available */
  def awaitSnapshot(timestamp: CantonTimestamp)(implicit traceContext: TraceContext): Future[T]

  /** Returns the topology information at a certain point in time
    *
    * Fails with an exception if the state is not yet known.
    */
  def trySnapshot(timestamp: CantonTimestamp)(implicit traceContext: TraceContext): T

  /** Returns an optional future which will complete when the topology state at a certain timestamp is known
    *
    * If the topology information is known already, we return None.
    */
  def awaitTimestamp(timestamp: CantonTimestamp): Option[Future[Unit]]

}

/** The client that provides the topology information on a per domain basis
  */
trait DomainTopologyClient extends TopologyClientApi[TopologySnapshot] with AutoCloseable {

  /** Subscribe to topology information updates */
  def subscribe(subscriber: DomainTopologyClient.Subscriber): Unit

  /** Remove observer from topology information updates */
  def unsubscribe(subscriber: DomainTopologyClient.Subscriber): Unit

  /** Wait for a condition to become true
    *
    * @return true if the condition became true, false if it timed out
    */
  def await(condition: TopologySnapshot => Future[Boolean], timeout: Duration)(
      implicit traceContext: TraceContext): FutureUnlessShutdown[Boolean]

}

object DomainTopologyClient {

  trait Subscriber {

    /** Inform the subscriber about the processed transactions */
    def observed(timestamp: CantonTimestamp, sc: SequencerCounter, transactions: Seq[SignedTopologyTransaction])(
        implicit traceContext: TraceContext): Unit

  }

  trait TransactionSubscriber extends Subscriber {

    def observedTransaction(transaction: SignedTopologyTransaction)(implicit traceContext: TraceContext): Unit

    final override def observed(
        timestamp: CantonTimestamp,
        sc: SequencerCounter,
        transactions: Seq[SignedTopologyTransaction])(implicit traceContext: TraceContext): Unit =
      transactions.foreach(observedTransaction)

  }

}

trait BaseTopologySnapshotClient {

  protected implicit def executionContext: ExecutionContext

  /** The official timestamp corresponding to this snapshot */
  def timestamp: CantonTimestamp

  /** Internally used reference time (representing when the last change happened that affected this snapshot) */
  def referenceTime: CantonTimestamp = timestamp

}

/** The subset of the topology client providing party to participant mapping information */
trait PartyTopologySnapshotClient {

  this: BaseTopologySnapshotClient =>

  /** Returns the set of active participants the given party is represented by as of the snapshot timestamp
    *
    * Should never return a PartyParticipantRelationship where ParticipantPermission is DISABLED.
    */
  def activeParticipantsOf(party: LfPartyId): Future[Map[ParticipantId, ParticipantAttributes]]

  /** Returns Right if all parties have at least an active participant passing the check. Otherwise, all parties not passing are passed as Left */
  def allHaveActiveParticipants(
      parties: Set[LfPartyId],
      check: (ParticipantPermission => Boolean) = _.isActive): EitherT[Future, Set[LfPartyId], Unit]

  /** Returns true if there is at least one participant that can confirm */
  def isHostedByAtLeastOneParticipantF(party: LfPartyId, check: ParticipantAttributes => Boolean): Future[Boolean]

  /** Returns the participant permission for that particular participant (if there is one)  */
  def hostedOn(partyId: LfPartyId, participantId: ParticipantId): Future[Option[ParticipantAttributes]]

  /** Returns true of all given party ids are hosted on a certain participant */
  def allHostedOn(partyIds: Set[LfPartyId],
                  participantId: ParticipantId,
                  permissionCheck: ParticipantAttributes => Boolean = _.permission.isActive): Future[Boolean]

  /** Returns whether a participant can confirm on behalf of a party. */
  def canConfirm(participant: ParticipantId,
                 party: LfPartyId,
                 requiredTrustLevel: TrustLevel = TrustLevel.Ordinary): Future[Boolean]

  /** Returns all active participants of all the given parties. Returns a Left if some of the parties don't have active
    * participants, in which case the parties with missing active participants are returned. Note that it will return
    * an empty set as a Right when given an empty list of parties. */
  def activeParticipantsOfAll(parties: List[LfPartyId]): EitherT[Future, Set[LfPartyId], Set[ParticipantId]]

  /** Returns a list of all known parties on this domain */
  def inspectKnownParties(filterParty: String,
                          filterParticipant: String,
                          limit: Int): Future[Map[PartyId, Map[ParticipantId, ParticipantAttributes]]]

}

/** The subset of the topology client, providing signing and encryption key information */
trait KeyTopologySnapshotClient {

  this: BaseTopologySnapshotClient =>

  /** returns newest signing public key */
  def signingKey(owner: KeyOwner): Future[Option[SigningPublicKey]]

  /** returns all signing keys */
  def signingKeys(owner: KeyOwner): Future[Seq[SigningPublicKey]]

  /** returns newest encryption public key */
  def encryptionKey(owner: KeyOwner): Future[Option[EncryptionPublicKey]]

  /** returns all signing keys */
  def encryptionKeys(owner: KeyOwner): Future[Seq[EncryptionPublicKey]]

  /** Returns a list of all known parties on this domain */
  def inspectKeys(filterOwner: String,
                  filterOwnerType: Option[KeyOwnerCode],
                  limit: Int): Future[Map[KeyOwner, KeyCollection]]

}

/** The subset of the topology client, providing participant state information */
trait ParticipantTopologySnapshotClient {

  this: BaseTopologySnapshotClient =>

  // used by domain to fetch all participants
  // used by participant to know to which participant to send a use package contract (will be removed)
  @Deprecated
  def participants(): Future[Seq[(ParticipantId, ParticipantPermission)]]

  /** Checks whether the provided participant exists and is active */
  def isParticipantActive(participantId: ParticipantId): Future[Boolean]

}

trait CertificateSnapshotClient {

  this: BaseTopologySnapshotClient =>

  def hasParticipantCertificate(participantId: ParticipantId)(implicit traceContext: TraceContext): Future[Boolean] =
    findParticipantCertificate(participantId).map(_.isDefined)

  def findParticipantCertificate(participantId: ParticipantId)(
      implicit traceContext: TraceContext): Future[Option[X509Cert]]

}

trait VettedPackagesSnapshotClient {

  this: BaseTopologySnapshotClient =>

  /** Returns the set of packages that are not vetted by the given participant
    *
    * @param participantId the participant for which we want to check the package vettings
    * @param packages the set of packages that should be vetted
    * @return Right the set of unvetted packages (which is empty if all packages are vetted)
    *         Left if a package is missing locally such that we can not verify the vetting state of the package dependencies
    */
  def findUnvettedPackagesOrDependencies(participantId: ParticipantId,
                                         packages: Set[PackageId]): EitherT[Future, PackageId, Set[PackageId]]

}

trait TopologySnapshot
    extends PartyTopologySnapshotClient
    with BaseTopologySnapshotClient
    with ParticipantTopologySnapshotClient
    with KeyTopologySnapshotClient
    with CertificateSnapshotClient
    with VettedPackagesSnapshotClient {}

Based on this API, the following Sync Crypto API can be built, which allows to decouple the crypto operations used in the synchronisation protocol from the crypto protocol and identity management implementation.

Sync Crypto Api

Within Canton, the entire identity, key and signing management is abstracted and hidden from the synchronisation protocol behind the SyncCryptoApi.

/** impure part of the crypto api with access to private key store and knowledge about the current entity to key assoc */
trait SyncCryptoApi {

  def pureCrypto: CryptoPureApi

  /** Signs the given hash using the private signing key. */
  def sign(hash: Hash)(implicit traceContext: TraceContext): EitherT[Future, SyncCryptoError, Signature]

  /** Decrypts a message using the private encryption key */
  def decrypt[M](encryptedMessage: Encrypted[M])(
      deserialize: ByteString => Either[DeserializationError, M]): EitherT[Future, SyncCryptoError, M]

  /**
    * Verify signature of a given owner
    *
    * Convenience method to lookup a key of a given owner, domain and timestamp and verify the result.
    */
  def verifySignature(hash: Hash, signer: KeyOwner, signature: Signature): EitherT[Future, SignatureCheckError, Unit]

  /**
    * Encrypts a message for the given key owner
    *
    * Utility method to lookup a key on an IPS snapshot and then encrypt the given message with the
    * most suitable key for the respective key owner.
    */
  def encryptFor[M <: HasVersionedToByteString](message: M,
                                                owner: KeyOwner): EitherT[Future, SyncCryptoError, Encrypted[M]]
}

This class contains the appropriate methods in order to sign, verify signatures, encrypt or decrypt on a per member basis. Which key and which cryptographic method is used is hidden entirely behind this API.

The API is obtained on a per domain and timestamp basis. The SyncCryptoApiProvider combines the information about the owner of the node, the connected domain, the cryptographic module in use and the topology state for a particular time and provides a factory method to obtain the SyncCryptoApi for a particular domain and time combination.

High-Level Picture

The following drawing provides a high-level overview of the identity management architecture and flows.

../_images/identity-management-highlevel.svg

Transaction Flow

The following chart lays out all components of the Canton identity management system. Some of the components are shared between participant node and domain node, while some have slightly different functionality. The arrow indicates data flow.

../_images/identity-management-process.svg

In the following, we describe how an identity command invoked on the participant node propagates through the system. Ultimately, the component fully describing the topology state is the identity providing service client. Therefore, we can track the propagation from the command until it reaches the IPSC.

  • CLI/GRPC Identity Management Request - The identity management system is accessible through the topology_manager_write_service, the topology_manager_read_service and the topology_aggregation_service, which are GRPC based services. The Canton shell exposes all these services directly through appropriate commands.

  • Identity Manager Write Service - In order to effect changes to the topology state, an administrator needs to create a new topology transaction and authorize is by signing it with an eligible key. These authorization commands are externally accessible using the write service, exposing the GRPC API.

  • Participant Identity Manager - Every participant has a local topology manager. The participant can populate the store by either importing authorized transactions or create new authorized transactions himself. The topology manager checks every locally added transaction for consistency and correctness.

  • Participant Identity Dispatcher - The dispatcher monitors the topology state managed by the local topology manager and tries to push the local authorized topology state to any connected domain. As an example, if a party is added locally, the dispatcher tries to propagate the corresponding topology transaction to any connected domain.

  • Sequencer Connect Service - Every sequencer exposes a public service, called sequencer connect service, for handshake and administrative purposes. Here, participants obtain the applicable domain rules, the protocol version and the domain id.

  • Domain Identity Manager Request Service - Any topology transaction upload from the domain service is processed through the request service. The request service is configured with a request strategy. The request strategy inspects the topology transaction and decides how to deal with an topology transaction. Right now, three strategies have been implemented: auto-approve for un-permissioned domains, queue for permissioned domains (where transactions are just stored for later decision in the Request Store) and reject for closed domains.

  • Domain Identity Manager - Similar to the participant node topology manager, except the added functionality required for a domain, allowing to set participant states. Changes to the domain identity manager either come from the local administrator through the topology manager write service or through accepted topology transactions from the request service. The sequencer listens to the domain topology manager and sets up new member queues if a new participant is added to the system.

  • Domain Identity Dispatcher - The domain identity dispatcher monitors the local authorized domain topology state. Upon a change, the dispatcher computes who needs to be informed of the given identity transaction (i.e. all active participant nodes). Or, if a new participant has been added, the dispatcher ensures that the first transactions a new participant will observe when connecting to the sequencer are the topology transactions. This prevents any race-condition or inconsistent topology state.

  • Message Forwarder - The topology state requires that the topology transactions are applied in the previously established order. The message forwarder therefore ensures the absolute guaranteed in order delivery of all topology transactions, in particular in the case of temporary delivery to sequencer failure. The message forwarder sends the topology transactions as instructed by the dispatcher via the sequencer to all participant nodes and domain entities.

  • Identity Providing Service Client - The implementation of the IPSC listens to the stream of sequenced messages and receives the identity updates. The client inspects the message, validates the signatures and appends the topology transaction to the topology state.

  • Identity Aggregation Service - Inspect via GRPC the aggregated topology state as exposed by the IPSC internally.

Not direct part of the transaction flow, but essential components for identity management are the following components:

  • Authorized/Request/Domain Identity Store - There are several stores for topology transactions. The authorized store is the set of topology transactions that have been added to the local topology manager. The domain identity store is the store of topology transactions that have been timestamped by the sequencer. The authorized store of a domain and the domain identity store will contain the same content, except that the authorized store can hold data which has not yet been timestamped by the sequencer. The content of the domain identity stores on the participant (one per connected domain) is exactly the same among all participants on a domain. These stores are used by the synchronisation protocol.

  • Identity Manager Read Service - The topology manager read services just serves inspection purposes in order to look deeply into the topology state. The read services plugs directly onto an identity store and expose the content via GRPC.